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NEOPLASIA: BASICS-1: Nomenclature: Benign, Malignant, Mixed tumors, teratoma,Hamartoma, choristoma

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NEOPLASIA: BASICS-1: Nomenclature: Benign, Malignant, Mixed tumors, teratoma,Hamartoma, choristoma
In this short tutorial  i have described the the basic concepts of neoplasia, which includes the understanding various nomenclatures in neoplasia.. Visit http://ilovepathology.com/ for more topics in Pathology!
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Tumor"--literally any swelling. First described by Celsus
Hippocrates:  Greek physician
Father of medicine
Noticed,that the blood vessels  surrounding the malignant tumor like the claws of crab.
He first coined the word “Karkinos” ( Greek for Crab)
Carcinos or Carcinoma in English!

Claudius Galen: Greek Physician
Second century AD
used the word oncos (Greek for swelling) to describe tumors. 
distinguished tumors that are: 
“According to nature"--pregnant uterus 
“Exceeding Nature"--pus 
“Contrary to nature"--what we now know as neoplasms /New growth
Neoplasia: “new growth”
Tumour: a swelling

DEFINITION:   “ RUPERT ALLAN WILLIS”

Neoplasm- Abnormal mass of tissue
Growth
Exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue
Persists after cessation of causative stimuli
IN THE PRESENT ERA IT CAN BE Defined as
Disorder of cell growthTriggered by a series of acquired mutations of a single cell
And its clonal progeny

MIXED TUMORS
Single neoplastic cell can differentiate into different types of cells

Eg: Pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland
 
The epithelial components are admixed with myxoid stroma
But both are derived from a single clone which is capable of producing both cell types
TERATOMA
 These tumors contain mature or immature cells which are derived from more than one germ cell layer
Sometimes all three!
Greek ( teras) -  monster
 these tumors originate from totipotential germ cells.
Ovary, testis,embroyonic rests

HAMARTOMA
Benign masses
Disorganized, but contain cells indigenous to the involved site ( composed of the elements which are  normally found at that site.
Hamartomas in the lung/heart etc..

CHORISTOMA
Heterotopic rest of cells.
Excess of normal tissue in abnormal location!!!
Eg: Pancreatic tissue as a small mass, can be seen in the  stomach or small intestine 

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